Category Archives: Diet and Nutrition

Amino Acids

As it has been a little while since I’ve written about nutrition, I thought I’d take a look at amino acids, the role they play in our bodies, and the means though we build them into our diets.

balanced mealDeemed the building blocks of protein, amino acids consist of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a variable side chain group. They play vital roles in protein synthesis, muscular development, tissue repair, and nutrient absorption. Some may also benefit, sleep, athletic performance, and weight loss. Of the 21 amino acids required by the body, 9 are deemed essential – i.e., they must be consumed as the body cannot manufacture them. They are:

  1. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the neurotransmitters tyrosine, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
  2. Valine, which stimulates muscle growth, regeneration, and energy production, and contributes to the overall health of the liver and gall bladder
  3. Threonine, which helps produce collagen, elastin, and tooth enamel, and plays a role in fat metabolism and immune function
  4. Tryptophan, which helps maintain the body’s nitrogen balance and contributes to appetite, sleep, and mood regulation via the neurotransmitter serotonin
  5. Methionine, which supports metabolism, detoxification, and tissue growth as well as the absorption of zinc and selenium
  6. Leucine, which supports metabolism and tissue repair and helps manage blood sugar levels, wound healing, and growth hormones
  7. Isoleucine, which supports muscle metabolism, immune function, hemoglobin production, blood clotting, and energy regulation
  8. Lysine, a major player in protein synthesis, hormone and enzyme production, and calcium absorption that also serves a supporting role in energy production, immune function, and collagen and elastin production
  9. Histidine, which produces histamine for immune response, digestion, sleep-wake cycles, and sexual function and helps maintain the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells

Food sources for these essential amino acids include:




Phenylalanine Beef, lamb, poultry, pork, cheese, yogurt, and eggs Moringa, tofu, pumpkin seeds, peanuts, wheat germ, quinoa, and wild rice
Valine Red meat, dairy products, milk, and yogurt Moringa, peanuts, mushrooms, and soy products
Threonine Beef, lamb, pork, collagen, and cheese Moringa, tofu, sunflower seeds, cashews, almonds, lentils, and pistachios
Tryptophan Turkey, red meats, milk, cheese, eggs, fish, and yogurt Moringa, chickpeas, spirulina, cocoa, bananas, seeds, and nuts
Methionine Fish, shrimp, beef, and lamb Moringa, soybeans, tofu, Brazil nuts, lentils, and spirulina
Leucine Beef, lamb, poultry, collagen, and cheese Moringa, spirulina, brown rice, corn, peanuts, and quinoa
Isoleucine Beef, yogurt, and fish Moringa, oats, lentils, sunflower seeds, spirulina, and seaweed
Lysine Primarily red meat, but also cheese, eggs, and certain fish such as sardines Moringa, lima beans, avocados, beetroot, potatoes, and peppers
Histidine Pork, beef, chicken, and tuna Moringa, tofu, pomegranates, apples, garlic, carrots, celery, and spinach

Animal products have a much greater concentration of essential amino acids than plants with red meat being the superstar. While plants vary in their amino acid content, the essentials are present in small amounts in a lot of different foods. A well-balanced, varied diet tends to cover the body’s basic needs. For those of us who favor a predominantly whole food plant-based diet, supplementation with a high-quality vegan protein powder may prove useful.

Six amino acids are deemed conditionally essential – i.e., the body can make them if it has access to the constituent parts and is not subject to severe catabolic stress. They are:

  1. Arginine, which increases production of nitric oxide to improve blood flow, reduce blood pressure, and promote heart health
  2. Cysteine, which plays an important role in detoxification, neurotransmitter production, collagen formation, immune function, and liver health
  3. Glycine, which serves as a constituent element of collagen and functions as a neurotransmitter
  4. Glutamine, which supports protein synthesis, energy production, detoxification, digestive health, glucose regulation, and immune function
  5. Proline, which supports cellular regeneration and tissue repair
  6. Tyrosine, which supports protein synthesis, blood pressure regulation, and the production of thyroid hormones, melanin, and a variety of brain chemicals that impact mood and cognitive function

Nonessential amino acids include alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, serine, and selenocysteine. The body makes these in sufficient quantities to attend to its basic needs. Supplementation may have little effect, and an excess may simply be excreted by the body.

Every time I do research on nutrition, I am struck by the importance of maintaining a balanced, healthy diet. Even a casual reading on amino acids suggests the possible deleterious impact of running a chronic deficiency in any one of them. For good measure, I’ll likely review our current diet to make sure that were getting everything that we need.

The Pegan Diet

fruits and vegetables

One of the most prominent figures in integrative medicine today is Dr. Mark Hyman. He’s a New York Times bestselling author, a columnist for The Huffington Post, and founder and medical director of The UltraWellness Center. After writing several books on wellness, he tossed his hat into the diet ring last year with The Pegan Diet: 21 Practical Principles for Reclaiming Your Health in a Nutritionally Confusing World.

Of course, it should come as no surprise that a physician dedicated to holistic healing would have a few things to say about nutrition. As he says, “Food is medicine.” His principles for healthy eating allow for a great deal of flexibility in meal planning. His use of the term “pegan” suggests that he is as comfortable with a paleo diet as he is with a vegan one… or some combination of the two!

Here are his 21 principles:

#1. Use food as your “farmacy.” Eat with the intention of satisfying your daily requirements of essential vitamins, minerals, and amino acids. Drink clean, filtered water.

#2: Eat the rainbow – i.e., lots of colorful fruits and vegetables. In addition to providing the aforementioned “essentials,” they’re packed with phytonutrients (e.g., polyphenols, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, terpenoids, carotenoids) that boost immunity, reduce inflammation, fight cancer, and curtail the effects of aging.

#3: Fill 75% of your plate with nonstarchy vegetables. That translates into 6-8 cups of said veggies and no more than a half cup of starchy ones (e.g., potatoes, winter squash) daily.

#4: Eat the right beans, whole grains, nuts, and seeds. Soak and boil (or pressure cook) beans to remove lectins. Use non-GMO, organic tofu, tempeh, and miso. Limit whole grains to 1/2 to 1 cup daily; avoid processed grains (bread, pasta). Get omega-3 oils with walnuts, flaxseeds, hemp seeds, and chia seeds (but go easy on them!)

#5: If you consume red meat, opt for grass fed beef and make portions palm-sized. Avoid high temperature cooking – i.e., grilling, charring, frying, smoking.

#6: Choose poultry labeled pasture raised or organic and wild caught fish.

#7: Have a little bit of fat with every meal, but don’t eat it in combination with sugar or starch.

#8: Avoid dairy (mostly). Opt for sheep or goat milk. Ghee is OK.

#9: Buy from farmers who care about the soil. It’s better for you and better for the planet.

#10: Treat sugar like a recreational (and addictive) drug. Just say NO… even to artificial sweetener. Your body and brain will thank you for it.

#11: Don’t rely on coffee to wake you up or alcohol to chill you out. Make filtered water your beverage of choice. Alcohol depletes nutrients and diminishes brain, gut, and liver function. If you imbibe socially or for the sheer pleasure of it, limit yourself to 1 ounce of alcohol 3 times per week – that’s 1 ounce of hard liquor, 5 ounces of wine, or 10 ounces of beer at a time.

#12: Work with your particular physiology to eat the foods that upregulate beneficial processes and downregulate reactive ones. If something makes you feel lousy, stop eating it!

#13: Cleanse, detox, and reset wisely. Stick to a sleep schedule to restore body and mind every night.

#14: Be attentive to nutrient deficiencies if pursuing a vegan diet. Dr. Hyman recommends taking a protein shake with a full amino acid profile plus 2.5g leucine and supplementing with Vitamin D, omega 3 fats, zinc, iodine, vitamin B12, and iron.

#15: Eat for gut health. Remove processed foods, gluten, dairy sugars, refined oils, and food sensitivities. Stay away from antibiotics, steroids, anti-inflammatories, and acid blockers unless absolutely necessary. Bolster “good bugs” with fermented foods – e.g., sauerkraut, kimchi, kefir, miso, tempeh. Eat pre- and probiotic rich foods.

#16: Focus on your healthspan, not just your lifespan. Don’t smoke. Get at least 3.5 hours of aerobic exercise each week. Do weight training. Maintain a healthy weight. Give yourself 12 hours between dinner and breakfast.

#17: Eat to feed your mind. Brain-boosting foods include omega-3 rich seafood (salmon, oysters), berries, fermented foods, green tea, nuts, seeds.

#18 Make healthy eating affordable. Buy ugly produce (e.g., Misfits, Imperfect Food). Buy in bulk. Plan meals before going to the grocery store and buy only what’s on the list.

#19: Feed your kids what you eat to inculcate healthy habits.

#20: Make healthy habits stick by: (i) getting clear on your motivation, (ii) securing supportive social influences, (iii) starting small and building slowly, and (iv) learning about the science of change.

#21: Start today!

Busting the Myth of Willpower and Dieting

does dieting just take willpower?If you’ve ever been on a diet (or several of them), you’ve probably been told by some well-meaning bystander that all you need do is exercise a little willpower. You know, just push yourself away from the table. It seems simple enough. Yet even folks with superior self-control in others areas of their lives often fail to regulate their eating habits to produce weight loss. Think Oprah Winfrey. Staggering success achieved through extraordinary talent and discipline. Lots of help in the form of a personal trainer, chef, nutritionist, counsellor, and assistants. And yet the struggle remains.

Roy F. Baumeister and John Tierney tackle this conundrum in Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength. They remind us that the body has a will of its own and reacts viscerally to what we do. It’ll go along with a diet once or twice. But then it’ll adapt, hoarding excess body weight even with reduced caloric intake. After all, evolution favors those who survive famines. If the body thinks that food might be scarce, it’ll do what it needs to do to address a projected shortfall. It doesn’t understand dieting for weight loss.

Dieting depletes willpower, even if we’re endowed with tons of it. Every time we go through the mental process of resisting foods that we’d like to eat, we draw down our reservoir of self-control. To resupply that energy, we need glucose. The body knows that the fastest way to produce glucose is sweets. So we crave sweets, causing a further drain on our willpower if we resist them. Talk about a Catch-22!

Baumeister and Tierney also shed light on the what-the-hell effect – a phenomena I know all too well! It says that when we’re watching what we eat, we make a mental note of the total calories that will pass our lips each day. When we blow the plan, we classify the day as a failure, eat whatever we want for the remaining waking hours, and vow to regain our virtue in the morning. Unfortunately, our overindulgence disrupts our biochemistry, messes with our sleep, and makes the next day’s task all the more difficult… which could well precipitate another what-the-hell effect.

Finally, our artificially regulated diets make it difficult for the body’s hormones to give us accurate clues on when we’re hungry and when we’re sated. Most of us simply eat at preset times during the day according to work and household schedules. So, we don’t know what it feels like to live in harmony with our body’s natural rhythm. We eat because it’s time to eat. We eat because the food is there. We eat because we’re bored. We eat because we eat.

What do Baumeister and Tierney suggest we do?

Focus on lifestyle changes that yield gradual weight loss and support long-term weight maintenance. Don’t shock the system into thinking it has been thrown back in time to the mid-19th century Potato Famine. Establish realistic goals, and eat sensibly and sustainably to attain them.

Weigh daily. Folks who take to the scales every day are more successful keeping weight off than those who don’t. They accept tiny fluctuations as a function of water retention without discouragement and nip the larger swings in the bud. Wearing fitted clothing also helps monitor the battle of the bulge!

Make highly specific plans to address high temptation circumstances. Use IF-THEN rules: “If I’ve had a bad day at work, then I will go to the gym before I go home.” “If I go to a restaurant, then I will order____.” If I go to a party, then I will _____.” Don’t waste brain cycles making decisions in the moment. Just follow the rules.

Postpone pleasure, don’t deny it. As Mark Twain said: “To promise not to do a thing is the surest way in the world to make a body want to go and do that very thing.” Rather, when craving sweets, tell yourself that you can have it later. Eat or drink something healthy in the meantime while savoring the prospect. If you still want sweets, offer yourself a small taste, not a big chunk!

Get back on the wagon immediately when/if you fall off. A momentary lapse doesn’t have to become a major setback. If you are tempted to succumb to the overeating abyss, find an enjoyable activity to distract you – e.g., walk the dog, put on music and dance around the living room, get fresh air while reading a book.

Work with your body’s natural rhythms. Plan meals around times when you are most likely to be hungry. Drink a glass of water roughly 20 minutes before mealtime to start filling up your stomach. Serve yourself modest portions and then eat slowly to give your body time to register that it’s getting full. Stop eating when you are sated. Don’t feel compelled to finish everything on your plate.

Brush your teeth early for bed to create an obstacle for late night snacking.

Prebiotics and Probiotics

In an earlier post, I discussed the importance of maintaining a healthy microbiome. This collective of microorganisms helps digest our foods, regulates metabolism and blood sugar, and participates actively in immune function. It also prevents bacterial invasion into the blood supply and thwarts infection from tainted foods. Most of these trillions of microorganisms live in our guts. We need to cultivate a diverse population of good microorganisms that minimize space available for bad ones.

Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that confer health benefits on the host when they are  administered in adequate amounts and planted in an environment conducive to growth. Fermented foods such as yogurt, kefir, tempeh, miso, and sauerkraut are natural sources of probiotics. Fruits and vegetables are covered in lactic acid bacteria, some of which are the same strains found among our gut bacteria.1

probiotics and prebioticsPrebiotics are compounds in foods that foster the growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms. They’re found in fruits and vegetables that have a high fiber content and/or starches that resist digestion. While we may not derive nutrients from these substances directly, our friendly microorganisms happily eat them up. Food sources include artichokes, asparagus, bananas, chicory root, garlic, leeks, legumes, onions, and whole grains. Just as we like variety in our diets, our microbiome responds favorably to different prebiotic food sources.

Our healthy gut biome dies off when we take broad-spectrum antibiotics. These lifesaving drugs do not have the sophistication to kill disease-causing bacteria while leaving the good stuff alone. The good guys also suffer in response to intestinal infection. Even stress has been associated with a substantive die-off of our healthy gut flora.2 In such cases, our once densely populated “gut garden” may become uncomfortably barren. Worse yet, unhealthy bacterial strains resistant to the effects of antibiotics, infection, or stress may attempt a hostile takeover of our guts.

Good nutrition can and should come to the rescue. Attentive consumption of a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fermented foods nourishes our guts in good times and helps repopulate them after unanticipated reversals.

What about probiotic supplements?

According to, the jury is still out on the safety and efficacy of these supplements. Most of the research to date has been sponsored by organizations with an economic interest in the findings, potentially leading to an overstatement of benefits and an underreporting of negative results.3 Moreover, even the most reputable products only supply a tiny fraction of microorganisms in relation to the trillions of bacteria and yeast needed to populate a healthy gut. Moreover, these prepackaged microorganisms may not survive their time on the store or household shelf and may not make it through the rigors of digestion.

Words to the wise: Focus on eating gut-friendly food. Avoid antibiotics unless medically necessary. Manage stress.



A Few Thoughts on Supplements

The last several posts have provided a brief introduction to vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients. All of these substances show up in nutrient-dense forms of foods we eat or, in the case of Vitamin D, get coaxed into production by sunshine. We falter in getting our recommended daily doses when we make poor dietary choices. According to the USDA’s 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, here are the percentage of the U.S. population ages 1 year and older who are below, at, or above each of their dietary recommendations:

U.S. nutritional guideline compliance

According to this same report, poor dietary choices account for the country’s high incidence of obesity as well as preventable cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and osteoporosis. All of these conditions combined account for billions of dollars in healthcare costs. So, there’s ample reason to pursue a lifestyle that promotes a healthy diet and exercise. For those who don’t want to make these choices and/or simply want to hedge their bets, the multi-billion dollar supplement industry stands ready to pick up the slack.

Does it make sense to take a multivitamin every day?

Science does not support an affirmative vote. Drs. Mcpherson, Pipigas, and Pase performed a meta-analysis of 21 randomized, controlled trials to determine whether multivitamin-multimineral (MVMM) supplementation decreased mortality from all causes. No such benefit could be observed.1 In fact, it might be argued that MVMM supplements might have a deleterious impact if used in lieu of healthy eating, regular exercise, and tobacco cessation, three proven strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and the like.

The U.S. government does not require vitamin, mineral, and herbal supplement manufacturers to adhere to “current good manufacturing processes” (cGMPs) that ensure the identity, strength, quality, and purity of drug products. A full 7 years after these practices went into effect, 65% of dietary supplement manufacturers inspected by the FDA remained noncompliant.2 Supplements do not have to be pre-approved before hitting the store shelves; supplement ads do not have to be vetted before they’re presented to the public. Moreover, as Dr. Michael Greger of states, “Dietary supplements may be adulterated with dangerous compounds, be contaminated, fail to contain the purported active ingredient, or contain unknown doses of the ingredients stated on the label.”3

When we take MVMM supplements, we risk getting too much of a good thing. Some nutrients like Vitamin A, folate/folic acid, niacin, copper, iron, and zinc are toxic when taken to excess. Supplementation may also inhibit absorption of other essential elements. For example, high levels of calcium has been shown to decrease the bioavailability of iron and magnesium.

Even if dietary supplements were proven to be safe and effective, they can’t compete with mother nature’s delivery system. The vitamins and minerals present in whole foods come prepackaged with a complementary complex of compounds that increase their collective efficacy. As a case in point, most vitamins produce optimum results in the presence of certain naturally occurring “cofactors,” such as trace minerals, enzymes, and coenzymes, as well as other vitamins. Plant-based food also contain phytonutrients that serve as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

Of course, there are those among us whose health conditions and/or diets prevent them from getting all of the vitamin and minerals they need. For example, vegans and vegetarians may take vitamin B12 supplements given the lack of meat in their diets. Persons with limited exposure to the sun may take Vitamin D supplements. If you choose to take supplements, make sure your physician knows what you’re taking. Some supplements interact poorly with prescription medication!

Finally, if you want some measure of assurance that the supplements you purchase are safe, check the labels for seals of any of the following organizations:

  • U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP)
  • NSF International
  • Underwriter’s Laboratory (UL)

None of these organizations guarantees that the supplements in question have therapeutic value. They test and certify that the products contain the ingredients advertised on the label, and they do spot checks during the year. Companies pay a healthy chunk of change for these endorsements, which is why so few of the tens of thousands of products on the market have them.




I lived several decades on this planet before I ever heard anyone talk about phytonutrients. I knew the Greek word for plant was phyto, so I had a fair idea of what these things were once they came to my attention. But I had no idea why I should care about them. After all, if they were essential to human health, surely someone would have told me about them sooner!

whole food plant based dietPhytonutrients refers to a collection of natural compounds that plants produce to promote their health and provide protection against germs, fungi, bugs, and other threats. You find phytonutrients in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, spices, and teas. While they’re not required for our survival, their presence in our diets proves beneficial.

Plants and related foods produce thousands of phytonutrients. Here are some of the common ones that enjoy a bit of notoriety.

Carotenoids produce the brightly colored red, orange, and yellow tones found in carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, papaya, sweet peppers, watermelon, and grapefruit. They’re also found in dark leafy greens, but the distinctive yellow hue gets masked by the green chlorophyll. As antioxidants, they tackle harmful free radicals to prevent damage to tissues throughout the body. They’ve also been associated with ocular health. Common carotenoids:

  • Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin (yellow, orange) can be converted to Vitamin A and support immune function and eye health.
  • Lycopene (red, pink) has been linked to reduced risk of prostate cancer.
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin in greens (spinach, kale, collards) may protect against cataracts and macular degeneration.

Ellagic acid can be found in grapes, berries, pomegranates, black currants, walnuts, pecans, and green tea. It has been shown to exert preventive and therapeutic effects against several types of cancers.1 Scientists theorize that it may help the liver neutralize cancer-causing substances as well as thwart the growth of cancer cells.

Flavonoids protect cells against oxidative damage and can help prevent the development of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and cognitive impairment. As different flavonoids manifest their antioxidant and anticancer activities in different ways, it’s a good idea to take advantage of various plant food sources to cover all the bases. Rich sources of flavonoids include berries, apples, red cabbage, onions, kale, parsley, green tea, red wine, citrus fruits, soybeans, and ginger.

Glucosinolates take up residence primarily in cruciferous vegetables such as boy choy, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and mustard greens. They give these vegetables their distinctive aroma and flavor. Among other things, epidemiological studies suggest that these vegetables are protective against cancers of the lung and digestive tract.2 That being said, cooking can destroy the enzyme myrosinase that converts glucosinolates into active metabolites. It doesn’t erase the benefits but may downgrade them considerably.

Phytoestrogens feature prominently in flaxseeds, soy products (beans, nuts, tofu, tempeh), miso, and sesame seeds. They are structurally similar to the estrogen we product in our bodies, but they preferentially bind to different estrogen receptor molecules than our homemade variety.3 This characteristic gives them the ability to offer relief to menopausal symptoms (e.g., hot flashes 4) without the deleterious effects associated with traditional hormone replacement therapy. Phytoestrogens have also positive effects on bone density.

Resveratrol found in grape skins and red wine has been touted as protective against cardiovascular disease. According to, resveratrol was shown to have no proven human activity in over 10,000 studies.5 The hype surrounding over-the-counter resveratrol supplements appears to have been driven by non-human research. In lieu of taking dietary supplements, eating the whole grape allows for the possibility of synergistic activity among multiple ingredients than enhances bioactivity.



Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Iodine, and Copper

Last week’s post provided an introduction to the body’s mineral requirements and offered a few details about the 7 essential macrominerals. While I do not plan to present information on all other essential minerals, a few of the trace minerals capture my attention.

iron, zinc, selenium, iodine, copperIron tops the list in public awareness given the prevalence of products (and associated advertising) targeting folks with “iron-poor blood.” Seventy percent of the body’s iron finds its way into red blood cells (hemoglobin) and muscle cells (myoglobin). Both are responsible for accepting, storing, transporting, and releasing oxygen from the lungs into tissues. Another twenty-five percent of the body’s iron takes the form of ferritin which regulates iron utilization in the cells and bloodstream. The remainder are constituent elements in certain proteins and enzymes that support vital metabolic functions.

Nutritionist Roberta Anding tells us that roughly 10% of dietary iron gets absorbed by the body. Heme iron in animal products proves more bioavailable than plant-based sources. It matters when you ingest iron. Calcium, zinc, magnesium, phosphorous, phytates, and soy inhibit iron absorption.

Iron deficiency manifests as fatigue, lightheadedness, leg cramps, cold intolerance, infections, shortness of breath, and difficulty swallowing. Iron deficiency anemia typically results from blood loss due to menstrual bleeding, gastrointestinal disorders, peptic ulcers, and certain cancers. It may also result from poor iron absorption as can occur with celiac disease, gastric bypass, Crohn’s disease, and excessive use of antacids. Vegetarians, vegans, and older adults may be prone to iron deficiency.

Zinc has grown in the public consciousness due to published claims of its ability to reduce the severity and duration of common colds. (Anding says the jury may still be out!) We do know that zinc plays a role in wound healing, tissue growth/repair, blood clotting, DNA synthesis, taste perception, bone mineralization, and healthy thyroid function. It’s also involved in blood sugar control and is required for maintenance of Vitamin E in the blood. Anding tells us that the body leverages 15-40% of dietary zinc, with meat sources being four to five times more bioavailable than plant sources. Zinc competes with iron, calcium, and copper for absorption. Deficiencies are most prevalent in older populations and typically manifest as a loss of taste, smell, and/or appetite.

Selenium works with Vitamin E as an antioxidant and plays a valuable role in thyroid function. It is also required for pancreatic function and tissue elasticity; it has shown to be protective against radiation and toxic minerals. Meat and poultry tend to be reliable sources of selenium as this mineral as regularly added to animal feed. Plant-based foods (notably grains) also provide selenium if grown in selenium-rich soil. Deficiencies can occur among folks with gastrointestinal disorders and those who’ve had gastric bypass surgery.

Like selenium, iodine plays an important role in producing thyroid hormones. These hormones affect our basal metabolic rate, heartbeats, rate of breathing, and mitochondrial activity. They’re also crucial for normal human development, sexual function, sleep, and cognition. Proper iodine utilization requires sufficient access to Vitamin A. Iodine deficiencies may cause muscle cramps, cold hands and feet, weight gain, poor memory, constipation, depression, and headaches. Excess iodine can be toxic. Unrefined sea salt, kelp, fish, broth, butter, pineapple, artichokes, asparagus, and dark leafy greens are good sources of iodine.

Copper helps the body form bone and hemoglobin and promotes healthy nerves, immune function, and collagen formation. It also plays an important role in memory and brain function. Copper does its work in conjunction with zinc and Vitamin C. High doses of zinc can precipitate a copper deficiency. While a variety of foods provide copper, beef liver is the best resource.

As noted in prior posts, make sure your physician is aware of any mineral supplements that you take regularly. The body needs a balanced intake of vitamins and minerals. Imbalances may introduce unwanted issues.


Just like fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, our bodies need small amounts of seven macrominerals and a gaggle of trace minerals to sustain life and forestall disease. These minerals may show up in our bodies as salts – i.e., molecules in which a negatively charged ion is bonded to a positive one (e.g., sodium chloride, calcium phosphate, zinc sulfate). Or, they may be held claw-like (chelated) by a larger molecule. For example, hemoglobin chelates iron atoms. Our guts extract minerals from what we eat and render them into a form we can use.

Here’s a bit of information about the seven macrominerals:


Calcium supports strong bones and teeth, the heart and nervous system, and muscle growth and contraction. Our blood and tissues need a steady supply of calcium. If they run short, they’ll tap into our bones to replenish. As such, a diet chronically low in calcium may contribute to faltering bone integrity (a.k.a., osteopenia and osteoporosis). Excess iron, zinc, phosphorous, and magnesium can inhibit calcium absorption.

Chloride helps regulate the blood’s acid-alkaline balance as well as the passage of fluids across cell membranes. It plays a substantive role in digestion. (You can’t get hydrochloric acid for the stomach without chloride!) It’s also vital for proper brain growth and functioning.

Magnesium supports enzyme activity, calcium and potassium uptake, nerve transmission, bone formation (including the hard enamel in teeth), and metabolism of carbohydrates. It also joins chloride in ensuring proper blood serum acid-alkaline balance. High carbohydrate diets and excess quantities of zinc and vitamin D increase magnesium requirements.

Phosphorous sustains bone growth, kidney function, cellular growth, and the body’s acid-alkaline balance, among other things. To be used properly, it needs to be absorbed with the right amounts of serum magnesium and calcium. Excess phosphorous leads to calcium loss, a condition that may arise due to high soft drink consumption. Too little phosphorous may impede calcium absorption by the bones.

Potassium and sodium work hand-in-hand at the cellular level. Sodium pumps water into the cell; potassium pumps waste products out. Potassium participates in many chemical reactions within the cell. Sodium supports a whole range of biochemical processes outside the cell, including water regulation, muscle contraction/expansion, nerve stimulation, and, yes, acid-alkaline balance in the blood. As a rule, Americans consume an excess of sodium by virtue of high-salt processed foods and canned goods as well as salt we add at the table. While the liver can rid the body of some excess, elevated levels can give rise to hypertension. Word to the wise: Eat fresh, whole foods, use other spices for taste, and read labels. You’d be surprised how much salt has been added to prepackaged foods!

Sulphur aids in many biochemical processes and finds its way into the structure of several amino acids. It helps protect the body from infection, blocks harmful effects of pollution, and slows down the aging process. (You’ve got to like that!) Sulphur-containing amino acids build cell walls. Sulphur also shows up in the gel-like connective tissue in cartilage and skin.

A partial list of required trace minerals includes Boron, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Germanium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Not all minerals are beneficial; some are toxic in quantity. Fortunately, minerals like calcium and magnesium along with antioxidants (e.g., Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium) protect against toxins and help the body eliminate them.

A number of factors inhibit the absorption of minerals even when an adequate supply has been ingested. The glandular messenger system that helps direct our gut’s mineral processing function needs ready access to fat-soluble vitamins. The gut’s mucosal walls leverage fat-soluble vitamins and cholesterol to maintain structural integrity, thereby letting beneficial substances pass though and keeping toxins out. Overconsumption of one mineral may crowd out absorption of another given “competition” for receptor sites. Strong chelating substances may develop such tight binds with their mineral substrates that they prevent them from being absorbed.

Here’s the good news: We’ve evolved over thousands of years to extract what we require when we eat a balanced, healthy diet. We just need to feast upon nutrient-dense foods and beverages, including mineral-rich bone broths. (It’s really easy to make bone broth from chicken or turkey carcasses. You can often buy beef or pork bones at your local store or famer’s market.) And, of course, you can always add minerals to your diet naturally by letting a little dirt or clay filter into your meals! Be sure to tell your doctor if you are taking mineral supplements regularly.

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Last week’s post launched the discussion of vitamins, those chemically active agents that are required to promote our health and growth. As noted, our bodies are unable to produce these life-sustaining substances on their own. With the exception of Vitamin D, we must take them in through food or supplements. This week, we’ll focus on water-soluble vitamins.

vitamin cVitamin C has been a popular dietary supplement ever since Dr. Linus Pauling (two-time Nobel prize winner in biochemistry) touted its benefits decades ago. As discussed in an earlier post, Vitamin C protects cells from incursion by viral agents and bolsters the efficacy of infection-fighting leucocytes. This powerhouse of a vitamin serves many other important functions.

According to nutritionist Roberta Anding, Vitamin C aids in the synthesis of carnitine which transports long-chain fatty acids into the cellular mitochondria for energy production. It’s needed for the synthesis of collagen, norepinephrine, peptide hormones, and tyrosine, an amino acid. It also supports iron absorption, and helps strengthen cartilage, bone, and teeth.

The recommended daily dose of Vitamin C is far lower than that suggested by Dr. Linus Pauling and can be obtained by eating 5-7 servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Vitamin C deficiency results in a condition called scurvy characterized by swollen, bleeding gums, joint pain, and fatigue. Scurvy was prominent among poorly nourished sailors at the end of the 18th century; it’s rarely found in the developed world.

The B vitamins work as a team to promote healthy nerves, skin, eyes, hair, liver, muscle tone, and cardiovascular function. They typically serve as coenzymes, triggering important chemical reactions that would not occur without their presence. They are found in fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts, legumes, seafood, and organ meats. Excess alcohol consumption proves detrimental to the bioavailability of B vitamins and may result in disease.

Vitamin B1 (thiamin) helps break down the food we eat into sugars and amino acids. Thiamine needs an acidic environment for absorption and is damaged in the presence of heat. Thiamine deficiency results in one of two forms of disease. Wet beriberi affects the heart and circulatory system; dry beriberi damages nerve tissue.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) helps break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates during digestion. It’s destroyed by ultraviolet light, hence the use of opaque containers for supplements. Excess riboflavin shows up as a distinctive yellow tinge to excreted urine. A deficiency results in ariboflavinosis as evidenced by mouth ulcers, cracked lips, dry skin, and sore throats. It may also be associated with anemia and itchy, watery, or bloodshot eyes.

Vitamin B3 (niacin) participates in the action of over 200 metabolic processes. Its deficiency brings on pellagra, a disease characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, tremors, and mental disturbance. Niacin has been prescribed by physicians with patients who have been unable to control their cholesterol through stains, exercise, or diet. However, a high dose of niacin can result in flushing, rapid heartbeat, itching, nausea, diarrhea, liver damage, and elevated blood sugar. In short, it’s not a vitamin to be trifled with on one’s own.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) has been associated with the proper functioning of the adrenal glands as well as cell metabolism and cholesterol production. It’s found in organ meats, egg yolks, and whole grains. Some naturopaths prescribe pantothenic acid to combat stress. Deficiencies tend to be associated with acute malnutrition.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) supports healthy brain, nervous system, and immune function. It is destroyed by heat and may be toxic in excess quantities. A deficiency may result in declining oral health, weakened immune function, fatigue, tingling in the hands and feet, and seizures.

Vitamin B7 (biotin) supports processes to metabolize fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Deficiencies are rare but can lead to hair loss, skin problems, lethargy, impaired immune function, and other symptoms.

Vitamin B9 (folic acid) is a popular supplement for pregnant women as it has been known to prevent birth defects and support good spinal development. It’s an important coenzyme that builds the body up, bolsters immune function, supports red blood cell division, combats depression, among other functions. Good sources of folate include leafy greens, green beans, mushrooms, brown rice, lentils, cauliflower, and peas. While 50-67% of folate is bioavailable from foods, it is vulnerable to heat.

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is needed to produce red blood cells, maintain the central nervous system, and support DNA synthesis. When bound to food, it is released by hydrochloric acid and protease in the stomach. Because stomach acidity decreases with aging, folks over age 50 may be subject to malabsorption. Animal products are the primary source of Vitamin B12. Vegetarians and vegans may need B12 supplements or risk anemia and/or nervous disorders.

Check with your doctor or a trusted government resource to determine the recommended daily allotment of these vitamins based on your age and overall health. Let your doctor know about any supplements that you take regularly.

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Vitamins are chemically active agents that are required in small quantities for our health and growth. They facilitate or control vital chemical reactions. As they cannot be manufactured by the body, we must rely on outside sources to supply them.

Vitamins A, D, E, and K dissolve in fat – hence the term fat-soluble – and can be stored in adipose tissue or the liver. The body can leverage these repositories to address any short-term deficiencies.

vitamins a, d, e, and kWe associate Vitamin A with healthy vision. It also plays a role in protein digestion, gene transcription, cell differentiation (i.e., telling cells what to become), epithelial cell development, bone metabolism, and blood development. It also serves as an antioxidant, protecting the body against free radicals and pollutants. Of the three forms of Vitamin A – retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid – retinoic acid is the most bioavailable. Vitamin A rich vegetables include sweet potatoes, spinach, kale, collard greens, and carrots. Egg yolks, organ meats, shellfish, and cod liver oil are good resources for meat-eaters. While we need sufficient Vitamin A for optimal health, an excess can be toxic. Laxatives, fat substitutes, and cholesterol-lowering drugs may interfere with absorption.

Vitamin D is most closely associated with healthy bone and teeth mineralization. It also regulates the amount of calcium that circulates in the blood. We generate Vitamin D out of cholesterol in the presence of sunlight. Synthesis depends on the amount of direct sunlight we experience, the level of melatonin in our skin, our use of sun screen, our clothing, and the time of day when exposure occurs. While sun exposure is not toxic with respect to our Vitamin D manufacturing operation, it may engender skin-related problems – notably burns, cancer, and premature signs of aging. Therefore, for those of us with sensitive skin or living in dark or overcast climates, Vitamin D supplementation might make sense. Blood tests can reveal whether or not the body has what it needs.

Vitamin E serves as an antioxidant to stabilize cell membranes and prevent oxidation by free radicals. It helps protect against mutation in our DNA and staves off heart disease by thwarting LDL oxidation. It has 8 different forms (called tocopherols), and each form serves a slightly different function. Dietary sources of Vitamin E include butter, organ meats, oils, nuts, seeds, and dark leafy greens. Preparation and timing matter. Roasted almonds lose 80% of their Vitamin E; oils lose their Vitamin E over time. Vitamin E deficiency in the U.S. is rare. While Vitamin E supplementation used to be quite popular, its efficacy has been called into question in recent years.

Vitamin K is the master coagulator. It promotes blood clotting and the formation of proteins necessary for bone health. Plant-based sources of Vitamin K include kale, spinach, cabbage, broccoli, asparagus, brussels sprouts, and miso. Levels may be threatened when taking antibiotics as they kill the bacteria necessary to activate Vitamin K. Persons on anticoagulant drugs may also need to monitor their vitamin K intake to ensure they have sufficient resources for appropriate blood clotting.

Check with your doctor or a trusted government resource to determine the recommended daily allotment of these vitamins based on your age and overall health. Let your doctor know about any supplements that you take regularly. Make sure to consume sufficient dietary fat to give these vitamins the means for proper absorption.